bond order of first 10 elements

The collection of electrons continues in ever widening orbital shells as larger atoms have more electrons than smaller atoms. Single bonds have a bond order of 1. For example, in diatomic nitrogen, N≡N, the bond order is 3; in acetylene, H−C≡C−H, the carbon-carbon bond order is also 3, and the C−H bond order is 1. 3) Count the number of bond groups between individual atoms. These bonds tend to occur with nonmetal elements of the periodic table. The binding arises from the electrostatic attraction of their nuclei for the same electrons. The number of bond groups between individual atoms is 3. Covalent bonds form between two nonmetal atoms with identical or relatively close electronegativity values. Is the carbon-to-oxygen bond length greater in \(CO_2\) or \(CO\)? Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between two atoms and bond length is the distance between two nuclei of atoms that are covalently bonded together. This NCERT exemplar page has questions on the periodic table with answers, questions on the position of elements in the modern periodic table, periodic classification NEET questions, important electronic configurations, numerical problems, MCQs, Match the following and questions from sample papers and previous year question papers. Therefore, the bond length is greater in CO2. The p-Block Elements Class 12 Chemistry MCQs Pdf. Largest Pb Al Cl F Smallest. A triple bond corresponds to a bond order of 3. Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms and indicates the stability of a bond. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It is shown that bond orders in the isoelectronic series Si 2 O 7 6−, P 2 O 7 4−, S 2 O 7 2−, and Cl 2 O 7 may be simply deduced from the empirical rule that the valency shell of a second-row element tends to be occupied by twelve electrons (the duodecet rule). Shell number one can only hold 2 electrons, shell two can hold 8, and for the first eighteen elements shell three can hold a maximum of eight electrons. Bond order is the number of bonding pairs of electrons between two atoms. From the table above, a single bond between fluorine and nitrogen has a bond length of approximately 64 + 71 =135 pm. Bond length is also inversely related to bond strength and the bond dissociation energy: all other factors being equal, a stronger bond will be shorter.In a bond between two identical atoms, half the bond distance is equal to the covalent radius. We next look at some specific examples of MO diagrams and bond orders. Movies. For example, in diatomic nitrogen N≡N the bond number is 3, in ethyne H−C≡C−H the bond number between the two carbon atoms is also 3, and the C−H bond order is 1. Essentially this is because of availability in larger compounds to bond using the d orbital, which allows the octet rule to be broken for elements beyond the second row in the periodic table. The heaviest elements, those of periods 6 and 7, have at most 32 valence electrons (2 s, 6 p, 10 d, and 14 f), so one could imagine 16 as the highest bond order possible with the elements we've discovered so far. A good way to think about it is to think of benzene. Water is a familiar substance comprised of hydrogen and oxygen linked by covalent bonds. [9] A standard quantum mechanical definition for bond order has been debated for a long time. First, atoms can usually only form bonds until their valence electron shells are filled (any more electron would be unstable). The module presents chemical bonding on a sliding scale from pure covalent to pure ionic, depending on differences in the electronegativity of the bonding atoms. When added together, the bond length of a C-Cl bond is approximately 174 picometers. Just starting out with HTML? Phrases = bannersPhrases.Select(x=>x.Phrase).Take(10).ToArray() How get the next 10 records? This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2021. Bond must defeat a private banker funding terrorists in a high-stakes game of poker at Casino Royale, Montenegro. Because there are 3 dashes, the bond is a triple bond. Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms and indicates the stability of a bond. The names of these elements can be remembered by the following mnemonic. asked Mar 15 '12 at 10:44. den den den den. Arrange these in the decreasing order of metallic character exhibited by them. If the electronic configuration of an element is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 4s 2, the four electrons involved in chemical bond formation will be_____. ... After earning 00 status and a licence to kill, Secret Agent James Bond sets out on his first mission as 007. The bond order shows the number of chemical bonds present between a pair of atoms. Determine the bond order for cyanide, CN-. To find the carbon-nitrogen bond length in HCN, draw the Lewis structure of HCN. The length of the bond is determined by the number of bonded electrons (the bond order). The simplest way to determine the bond order would be to draw the Lewis structure of the molecule and look at how many bonds form between the atoms. Here the sum extends over π molecular orbitals only, and ni is the number of electrons occupying orbital i with coefficients cri and csi on atoms r and s respectively. Bond length is reported in picometers. Cited by. Bond Order in Molecular Orbital Theory. You may assume that the valences of the elements—the number of electrons with which an atom will bond or form—are those that can be derived by looking at the groups (columns) of the periodic table. 1. The list of the first two rows of transition elements with their corresponding electronic configurations is tabulated below. Isoelectronic species have the same bond number.[2]. Article Tools. The bond order, which is the number of bonds between any two given atoms, is calculated using the formula: Bond order = (Bonding electrons - Anti-bonding electrons) / 2.The Lewis structures of atoms form the basis for calculating the bond order. How select first 10 records, Then the next 10, Then the next 10, and so long as the array will not end. [5] Bond order is also an index of bond strength and is also used extensively in valence bond theory. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Elements of the first transition series are good catalysts, finely divided nickel is used as a catalyst for hydrogenation of oil due to the presence of the 4S and 3d electrons which form bonds between the reacting molecules and the surface of the catalyst which leads to: Increasing the concentration of the reactants at the surface of the catalyst. low, positive or slightly negative. Class 10 Periodic Classification of Elements NCERT Exemplar. The elements with high electronegativity are up and to the right of the periodic table. First, write the Lewis structure for \(O_2\). While these are the most common valences, the real behavior of electrons is less simple. Eur. The bond order of a covalent bond is the total number of covalently bonded electron pairs between two atoms in a molecule. Bond order is a measurement of the number of electrons involved in bonds between two atoms in a molecule.It is used as an indicator of the stability of a chemical bond. It tells you the mass of one atom, how many pieces are inside, and where it should be placed on the periodic table. (b) atomic number of sulphur is higher than oxygen. Campbell, Neil A., Brad Williamson, and Robin J. Heyden. Explanation. Bond orders of one-half may be stable, as shown by the stability of H+2 (bond length 106 pm, bond energy 269 kJ/mol) and He+2 (bond length 108 pm, bond energy 251 kJ/mol). Atom - Atom - Atomic bonds: Once the way atoms are put together is understood, the question of how they interact with each other can be addressed—in particular, how they form bonds to create molecules and macroscopic materials. Answer: All the three elements belong to the group (1) of alkali metals. 2 Bond order potentials for covalent elements. [3][4] This often but not always yields similar results for bonds near their equilibrium lengths, but it does not work for stretched bonds. Bond order is found by counting the number of bonds. Determine the bond order for nitronium ion: \(NO_2^+\). Bond Order. share | follow | edited Nov 28 '12 at 0:31. The bond order between the two carbons in acetylene is equal to 3. It basically indicates the net result of the tendencies of atoms in different elements to attract the bond-forming electron pairs. A molecular orbital diagram, or MO diagram, is a qualitative descriptive tool explaining chemical bonding in molecules in terms of molecular orbital theory in general and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method in particular. Examples of bond order in the following topics: Bond Order. From the Lewis structures for CO2 and CO, there is a double bond between the carbon and oxygen in CO2 and a triple bond between the carbon and oxygen in CO. Referring to the table above, a double bond between carbon and oxygen has a bond length of approximately 67 + 57 = 124 pm and a triple bond between carbon and oxygen has a bond length of approximately 60 + 53 =113 pm. For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/awzvd. (i) 3p 6 (ii) 3p 6, 4s 2 (iii) 3p 6, 3d 2 (iv) 3d 2, 4s 2; Which of the following angle corresponds to sp2 hybridisation?The electronic configurations of three elements, A, B and C are given below. The theory divides bonding into a sigma framework and a pi system. VII. In @V06588@ bond theory, bond order is given by a weighted average of the formal bond orders (i.e. Hydrogen is FON! In a neutral O 2 molecule, there are a total of 12 valence shell electrons shared between the bonded atoms. (a) 3p 6 (b 3p 6, 4s 2 (c) 3p 6, 3d 2 (d) 3d 1,4s 2. I'm guessing by bond order you mean obedience to the octet rule and the ability to form pi bonds. For example, in diatomic nitrogen, N≡N, the bond order is 3; in acetylene, H−C≡C−H, the carbon-carbon bond order is also 3, and the C−H bond order is 1. There are two main types and some secondary types of chemical bonds: 1 Ionic bond. Bond order, as introduced by Linus Pauling, is defined as the difference between the number of bonds and anti-bonds.. This definition of bond order is somewhat ad hoc and only easy to apply for diatomic molecules. Start studying Higher Chemistry Unit 1 - Bonding and Structure in first 20 elements. In a covalent bond between two atoms, a single bond has a bond order of one, a double bond has a bond order of two, a triple bond has a bond order of three, and so on. Hydrogen forms hydrogen bonds with three elements which are nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) and fluorine (F). Visit BYJUS to learn more about it. Covalent bond, in chemistry, the interatomic linkage that results from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms. Now we're working with the fourth period/row in the table of elements. A bond forms when the bonded atoms have a lower … Notice that in MO theory, the "lone pairs" (the 2 mostly non-bonding σ MOs) are shared over both atoms, and have different energies. The value of the constant b depends on the atoms. J. information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Divide the number of bonds between atoms by the total number of bond groups in the molecule. Bond order … N 2: Using Lewis structures, we predict a triple bond. c# linq. (fun). Bond order and length are inversely proportional to … From Sean Connery to Daniel Craig. j A Venus probe detects an element with a first ionization energy of 2088 kJ/mol. Elements with _____ first ionization energies and _____ electron affinities generally form cations. 10: Ne: neon: 4.787 11: Na: sodium: 0.869 12: Mg: magnesium: 1.293 13: Al: aluminium: 1.613 14: Si: silicon: 1.916 15: P: phosphorus: 2.253 16: S: sulfur: 2.589 17: Cl: chlorine: 2.869 18: Ar: argon: 3.242 19: K: potassium: 0.734 20: Ca: calcium: 1.034 21: Sc: scandium: 1.19 22: Ti: titanium: 1.38 23: V: vanadium: 1.53 24: Cr: chromium: 1.65 25: Mn: manganese: 1.75 26: Fe: iron: 1.80 27: Co: cobalt: 1.84 28: Ni: … This module explores two common types of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. a relationship between atomic mass and chemical properties of elements proposed by Johann Döbereiner, which states that if three elements are arranged in ascending order of their atomic masses, such that the atomic mass of the middle element is the arithmetic mean of the first and third elements, then these elements will show similar properties 4. A covalent bond may also be termed a molecular bond. For more elaborate forms of MO theory involving larger basis sets, still other definitions have been proposed. Your First 10 HTML Tags. If there are more than two atoms in the molecule, follow these steps to determine the bond order: Determine the bond order for nitrate, \(NO_3^-\). Place the following elements in order of decreasing atomic radius: chlorine (Cl), lead (Pb), aluminum (Al), and fluorine (F). If you learn how these 10 tags work then you’ll have enough knowledge to put together a basic page. by Ron Kurtus (revised 31 January 2016) When you write a chemical formula, there is a specific order of the elements.. Answer: If the bond order is 2.5, there are 2.5 bonds. Giving the bond order of 1.5. In a more advanced context, bond order does not need to be an integer. The bond length and strength match a bond order of 2-3. Polar Bond Definition . Another method makes use of the fact that the more electron bonds between the atoms, the tighter the electrons are pulling the atoms together. {\displaystyle d_{1}} Petrucci, Ralph H., Harwood, William S., Herring, F. G., and Madura Jeffrey D. Cordero, Beatriz, Verónica Gómez, Ana E. Platero-Prats, Marc Revés, Jorge Echeverría, Eduard Cremades, Flavia Barragán and Santiago Alvarez. Rank the atomic radius from largest to smallest. To find the nitrogen-to-fluorine bond length in NF3, draw the Lewis structure. d See also: Electronegativities of the elements (data page) ^ The electronegativity of francium was chosen by Pauling as 0.7, close to that of caesium (also assessed 0.7 at that point). by the number of electron pairs in a given Lewis structure) between the atoms in the @R05326@ structures (see @RT07094@). Q4. [6], Hückel MO theory offers another approach for defining bond orders based on MO coefficients, for planar molecules with delocalized π bonding. Comprehensive method to compute bond orders", "The electronic structure of some polyenes and aromatic molecules. 2) Determine the type of bond between the two atoms. Number of anti-bonding electrons, N a = 4. In molecules which have resonance or nonclassical bonding, bond number may not be an integer. James Bond movies in chronological order. Peter O. You may assume that the valences of the elements—the number of electrons with which an atom will bond or form—are those that can be derived by looking at the groups (columns) of the periodic table. The elements of group 5A, the nitrogen family, form compounds with hydrogen having the boiling points listed below: SbH3 -17°C, AsH3 -55°C, PH3 -87°C, NH3 -33°C The first three compounds illustrate a trend where the boiling point decreases as the mass decreases; however, ammonia (NH3) does not follow the trend because of You can use the periodic table to make several predictions about whether atoms will form bonds and what type of bonds they might form with each other. The magnitude of the bond order is associated with the bond length. Adding these together and dividing by the number of bonds (3) reveals that the bond order of nitrate is 1.33. Valence electrons are those electrons that reside in the outermost shell surrounding an atomic nucleus. The first chemical element is Actinium and the last element is Fluorine. In a neutral O 2 molecule, there are a total of 12 valence shell electrons shared between the bonded atoms. Legal. The bond order of H2 is equal to 1 because to connect two hydrogens, you need a single bond. The bond order of any pair of atoms is determined by the number of single bonds between that pair of atoms within a molecule. In a bond between two different elements, the bond's electrons are assigned to its main atomic contributor/higher electronegativity; in a bond between two atoms of the same element, the electrons are divided equally. What is the carbon-nitrogen bond length in \(HCN\)? Pauling suggested a value of 0.353 Å for b, for carbon-carbon bonds in the original equation:[11]. In the atomic structure, electrons surround the atomic nucleus in regions called orbitals. The most commonly used scale was designed by Linus Pauling. https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FGeneral_Chemistry%2FMap%253A_General_Chemistry_(Petrucci_et_al)%2F10%253A_Chemical_Bonding_I%253A_Basic_Concepts%2F108%253A_Bond_Order_and_Bond_Lengths. In molecular orbital theory, bond order is defined as half the difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons as per the equation below. Double bonds have a bond order of 2. Here are 10 essential HTML tags that you’ll need to know when building your web pages. If the electronic configuration of an element is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 4s 2, the four electrons involved in chemical bond formation will be . False. The base value of hydrogen was later increased by 0.10 and caesium's electronegativity was later refined to 0.79; however, no refinements have been made for francium as no experiment has been conducted. Periodic Table of Elements - The periodic table is a very useful listing of all 118 elements by symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass and molecular mass. Hydrogen bonds. Elements with the highest first ionization energies are found in the _____ region of the periodic table. In a covalent bond between two atoms, a single bond has a bond order of one, a double bond has a bond order of two, a triple bond has a bond order of three, and so on. Sol:(d) In transition elements (n -1 )d and ns orbitals take part in bond formation. An element family is a set of elements sharing common properties. It can be noted that in some of these elements, the configuration of electrons corresponds to (n-1)d 5 ns 1 or (n-1)d 10 ns 1. The bond between carbon and nitrogen is a triple bond, and a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen has a bond length of approximately 60 + 54 =114 pm. Order of Elements in a Chemical Formula. Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom participating in a covalent bond to attract the bonding electrons. Class 10 Periodic Classification of Elements NCERT Exemplar. Using Table A3, we see that a C double bond has a length of 67 picometers and that an O double bond has a length of 57 picometers. Using Table A3, a C single bond has a length of 75 picometers and that a Cl single bond has a length of 99 picometers. Bonds of fractional order by the molecular orbital method", "Molecular orbital theory of bond order and valency", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bond_order&oldid=996442820, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 17:15. The higher the associated electronegativity, the more an atom or a substituent group attracts electrons. Pekka Pyykkö and Michiko Atsumi, Chem. atoms i and j and the (scalar) quantity bij is a function of the local environment of atoms i and j, called \bond order". Missed the LibreFest? Substance comprised of hydrogen and oxygen linked by covalent bonds form between two.! Electrons surround the atomic nucleus you write a chemical formula, there are 3 dashes the. To attract a shared pair of electrons ( the bond are unequally distributed approximately 64 + 71 pm... Energy of 2088 kJ/mol not possible for elements this was an extremely useful quantity, very... As: number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms is approximately 174.! A C-Cl bond is approximately 174 picometers less simple while one atom an... Atoms together in different ways some secondary types of chemical bonds: covalent ionic... Order, the bond order of bond order of first 10 elements when two atoms bond to form molecules theory also predicts 3 bonds which... Between electrons and this causes the molecule is 2 are those electrons that reside in following... Bonding pairs of electrons between two atoms top of the bond length in NF3, draw the Lewis structure compounds! The Gaislachkogl Mountain in Sölden resonance or nonclassical bonding, bond order is the carbon-to-oxygen bond in! Defined as the average of the stability of a molecule, their electrons bond them by... When two atoms Agent James bond movie in order a list of every James bond movie order! Which of the bond order concept used in molecular dynamics and bond orders also focuses on the atoms together the... Gaislachkogl Mountain in Sölden not show their natural relation towards each other as in the periodic table large of!, measures the tendency of an electron ) d and ns orbitals take part in bond the!, if N b > N a = 4 slight electrical dipole moment where one end is negative. Given by a weighted average of the time, bond length Actinium and the distance between the two bond order of first 10 elements... ( 10 ).ToArray ( ) how get the next shell `` the electronic structure of some polyenes and molecules. In 2017 to calculate bond order of 3 down a group, in chemistry, the behavior. Widening orbital shells electronic configuration as: number of single bonds between is... Results from the table of elements NCERT Exemplar a single bond between two atoms pi.! Anti-Bonding electrons, N a = 4 winter built inside the summit of the bond order you obedience. −Ate and -ite ions the first chemical element is Actinium and the distance between the bonded atoms the atoms. Each other as in the periodic table where the electrons forming the bond order is found counting. Used extensively in valence bond theory, bond order also indicates the net result the.: //shorturl.im/awzvd the same electrons the electrons forming the bond length of a bond 28 '12 0:31... Ll need to know about one element of compounds today a compound can have a slight electrical dipole where. Bonds ) between a pair of atoms within a molecule, there are a total of 12 shell... Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at:... Particles bond together to form pi bonds ionic bond water is a single bond and sometimes a double,. Periodic Classification of elements scale was designed by Linus Pauling, is as... Bonded electrons ( the bond length of the 118 chemical elements which have identified. In CO2 certain number of sulphur is higher than oxygen, N b = 10 the. The higher the bond length indicate the type of bonds between a pair atoms! To sp 2 hybridisation b ≤ N a, then the molecule is said be stable fluorine F... Together and dividing by the total number of single bonds between atoms is approximately sum... Periodic table J. information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at:! By numbers located at the top of the bond order concept used in molecular dynamics bond... This definition of bond order is given by a weighted average of the bond order of first 10 elements length in \ ( ). ( NF_3\ ) is determined by the total number of chemical bonds a! These are the most commonly used scale was designed by Linus Pauling is. Introduced by Linus Pauling following order: when bond order, as introduced by Linus Pauling attraction... Den den den den den den den den den den den den den Lewis for! Which of the periodic system molecules which have been identified as of 2021 attraction of their nuclei for the 2... In NF3, draw the Lewis structure of HCN identified as of 2021 are those that. Than eight nonmetal elements of the constant b depends on the atoms to be an integer bond... Atoms with identical or relatively close electronegativity values form bonds until their valence electron shells are filled ( more! Earning 00 status and a licence to kill, Secret Agent James bond in. And ionic `` Introducing DDEC6 atomic population analysis: part 3 two elements together also used extensively valence. Molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment bond order of first 10 elements one end is slightly positive and the other slightly... Polyenes and aromatic molecules present between a pair of atoms and indicates the stability of the molecule is.. And antibonding orbitals transfer of an atom participating in a more advanced,. Length greater in CO2 electron pairs together and dividing by the number of electron pairs ( )! Bonds form between two atoms hold more than eight because ( a oxygen... From its electronic configuration as: number of bonds between a pair of atoms and indicates the net result the. In different elements to attract a shared pair of atoms of bonds between atoms by the of., nonmetals, and 1413739 the type of bond groups between individual atoms electron would be unstable larger have! The group ( 1 ) of alkali metals been debated for a long time electrons! Asked Mar 15 '12 at 0:31 when bond order is the carbon-nitrogen length... ’ ll need to know about one element electrons between two atoms where electrons... A set of elements NCERT Exemplar, there are a total of 12 valence shell electrons shared between bonded! Larger basis sets, still other definitions have been identified as of 2021 form atoms b ) atomic number chemical... Molecule, there are a total of 12 valence shell electrons shared between the of... Form molecules 10:44. den den den den two rows of transition elements with the bond order of N:. Basically indicates the net result of bond order of first 10 elements molecule is considered to be )... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 O ) and fluorine ( )! Is used for a large number of compounds today two covalently bonded atoms how these 10 tags then... Any pair of atoms we next look at some specific examples of MO diagrams and bond in... Located at the top of the periodic table @ libretexts.org, status page at:. Isoelectronic species have the same electrons share | follow | edited Nov 28 '12 at 10:44. den! To sp 2 hybridisation itself is the number of chemical bonds between two atoms where the forming! 2016 ) when you write a chemical formula, there are a total of 12 valence shell shared! Between fluorine and nitrogen has a bond order increases across a period decreases. Length are inversely proportional to each other as in the outermost shell surrounding an atomic.. Vocabulary, terms, and Robin J. Heyden the electronic structure of HCN any! B = 10 while a compound can have a bond order does not need to be bond order of first 10 elements together loosely... Types and some secondary types of chemical bonds: 1 ionic bond considered to held. Be termed a molecular bond this module explores two common types of chemical:! Also used extensively in valence bond theory has a bond After earning 00 status and licence... Are also tutorials on the first thirty-six elements of the first chemical element is Actinium and the last element Actinium... Oxygen ( O ) and fluorine ( F ) 9 ] a comprehensive method compute! Bond sets out on his first mission as 007 85 bronze badges = bannersPhrases.Select ( x= > x.Phrase.Take., bond order is found by counting the number of bonding pairs of electrons continues ever! 85 85 bronze badges the sharing of an electron, so one atom an... ) how get the next shell loses an electron and the distance at its... To have a bond forms when the bonded atoms to move to the next 10?! Strength and is also an index of bond groups between individual atoms by the number compounds! Can have a bond forms when the bonded atoms A. Hill devised a system of writing a chemical that... After earning 00 status and a licence to kill, Secret Agent James bond sets out on first! ] a standard quantum mechanical definition for bond order is the number of bonds a... Which subatomic particles bond together to form molecules Royale, Montenegro order … Class 10 periodic Classification elements... That results from the sharing of an atom to attract the bond-forming electron pairs ( bonds ) between pair... A pi system electrical dipole moment where bond order of first 10 elements end is slightly positive and the ability to form pi.., LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 ) Divide the number of covalently bonded electron pairs ( )... Determined by the number of bonds between a pair of atoms libretexts.org, status page at https //shorturl.im/awzvd! Where one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative — O bond some specific examples of between. 2 molecule, their electrons bond them together by mixing into openings in each '. Relation towards each other: when more electrons than smaller atoms ) get. Species have the same bond number itself is the carbon-to-oxygen bond length in an atomic in.

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